20th century intelligence - ending poverty of half world without electricity -although Keynes 1936 (last capter general theiry money inetrest emplymen) asked Economists to take hipocrati oath as the profession that ended extreme poverty, most economists did the opposite. Whats not understandable is how educatirs failed to catalogue the lessons of the handful who bottom-up empowered vilages to collaboratively end poverty. There are mainly 2 inteligences to understand- Borlaug on food; fazle abed on everything that raised life expectancy in tropical viage asia from low 40s to 60s (about 7 below norm of living with electricity and telecomes). Between 1972 and 2001, Abed's lessons catalogued in this mooc had largelu built the nation of Bangladesh and been replicated with help of Unicef's James Grant acroo most tropical asian areas. What's exciting is the valley's mr ad mrs steve jobs invted Fazle Abed to share inteligences 2001 at his 65th birthday party. The Jobs and frineds promised to integrate abed's inteligence into neighborhod university stanfrd which in any event wanted Jobs next great leap the iphone. The Valley told abed to start a university so that women graduates from poor and rich nations could blend inteligence as Abed's bottom of the pyramid vilage began their journey of leapfrog modles now that gridd infarstructures were ni longer needed for sdiar and mobile. Abed could also help redesign the millennium goals which were being greenwashed into a shared worldwide system coding frame by 2016. There re at Abed's 80th birtday party , the easy bitwas checking this mooc was uptodate. The hard bit - what did Abed mean by his wish to headhunt a taiwanese american to head the university's 3rd decade starting 2020?

Monday, December 31, 1979

1.2 brac microfinance

 related by 1990 gov also formed PKSF as apex of all recognised microfinance in bangladesh -see also typical annual report - 2015 report being written in 2016 year of abed's 80 birrthday celebrations

debates over who invented microfinance seem academic to me- i cant imagine that nowhere before bangladesh of the 1970s did someone start offering transparent savings and loans having first heledp hundred or families communally hundreds of family size businesses the community most need to have food to keep children safe to share last mile mother and infant care -last mile services and training critical to development- indeed i would almost of hoped that somewhere on our planet that was the empowering purpose of local government

by the 1990s bangladesh became known as open university of microfinance

any way that's how banking for por emerged naturally around brac by sir fazle abed and grameen by muhammad yunus -and how irs replication  helped women build a sustainable rural nation from what had been born 1971 poorest in world as well as 8th most populous- its important to note abed built rural health service franchises and training networks 10 years ahead of yunus whose bank only got a national ordinance in 1983-- so studying what was being banked by brac and grameen are two different organisational compasses (styles were different too with abed founding over 100 microfranchises but delegatining/auditing once the replicable model was operational while in some ways everything went through yunus at grameen) even though they became what millennium goal networkers with the big name approval of hilary clinton and spain's queen sofia hosted annual  global summits around swtarting in wash dc 1997 and going round the world

however for reasons that are not clear to me micrcreditsummit went all out getting yunus the nobel peace prize and washington dc's top 2 medals - congress ionaland president; and big banks stated sponsoring more and more academics to teach either yunus stories or how to improve on them -not one offered anything like the network of systems that abed offers b eit with brac microfinance + 1.2 or any of the 30 interacting networks for cmomunities deeply advancing sdgs 1 to 5

we can see that at abed's death , yunus acknowledges that abed laid the foundations