20th century intelligence - ending poverty of half world without electricity -although Keynes 1936 (last capter general theiry money inetrest emplymen) asked Economists to take hipocrati oath as the profession that ended extreme poverty, most economists did the opposite. Whats not understandable is how educatirs failed to catalogue the lessons of the handful who bottom-up empowered vilages to collaboratively end poverty. There are mainly 2 inteligences to understand- Borlaug on food; fazle abed on everything that raised life expectancy in tropical viage asia from low 40s to 60s (about 7 below norm of living with electricity and telecomes). Between 1972 and 2001, Abed's lessons catalogued in this mooc had largelu built the nation of Bangladesh and been replicated with help of Unicef's James Grant acroo most tropical asian areas. What's exciting is the valley's mr ad mrs steve jobs invted Fazle Abed to share inteligences 2001 at his 65th birthday party. The Jobs and frineds promised to integrate abed's inteligence into neighborhod university stanfrd which in any event wanted Jobs next great leap the iphone. The Valley told abed to start a university so that women graduates from poor and rich nations could blend inteligence as Abed's bottom of the pyramid vilage began their journey of leapfrog modles now that gridd infarstructures were ni longer needed for sdiar and mobile. Abed could also help redesign the millennium goals which were being greenwashed into a shared worldwide system coding frame by 2016. There re at Abed's 80th birtday party , the easy bitwas checking this mooc was uptodate. The hard bit - what did Abed mean by his wish to headhunt a taiwanese american to head the university's 3rd decade starting 2020?

Tuesday, August 31, 2021

3.5 partners -affordable-health frugal - brac delivery kit child birth, child stunting, wash ... bottom of pyramid market leadership microhealth, microagri ....

PARTNERS IN AFFORDABLE HEALTH what i have learnt from 15 trips to bangladesh and more broadly from 50 to asia is sustainability will most likely depend on celebrating those who empower health networks around love not those who power over health with money -happy to zoom or debate cases on this any time rsvp chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

frugal is the terminology brac celebrates in innovating health and well being services in life critical ways but on minimal budgets- brac's doubling of network services every 2.5 years emerged as south/east partnering centre of gravity 10 years ahead of western bottom of pyramid studies -eg gary hamel , and 3.2 the building of the microfranchise of women health suppliers goes back to start of brac early 1970s 

we find searches of brac delivery kits first produced 1998 offer a range of reports and academic inputs illustrating brac's longitudinal work and increasing centre of gravity for frugal partnerships 

In the developing world, life often runs on jugaad solutions. According to the authors of Jugaad Innovation: Think Frugal, Be Flexible, Generate Breakthrough Growth, western businesses could learn a lot from the jugaad approach of innovation and radical affordability.

Development organizations, too, must create inexpensive and adaptable solutions to alleviate poverty. The BRAC birthing kit is one such example.

BRAC has grappled with the problem of high maternal and infant mortality in a country where the vast majority of women still give birth at home without a skilled attendant. Your response might be to build more or bigger hospitals; BRAC instead brought suitable alternatives to the women themselves, in the form of “birthing huts” in the slums of Dhaka and other Bangladeshi cities, as well as the BRAC birthing kits.

A BRAC birthing kit contains the necessary tools for a safe and sterile delivery: gauze, carbolic soap, a sterile plastic sheet to go over the mattress, a thread to tie the umbilical cord and a surgical blade to cut it. That’s it.

It might not be the most elegant solution, but it transforms any home into a safe and sterile place to have a baby. The cost to the consumer? A mere 40 cents.

By slimming the product down to the bare necessities, the birthing kit is simple to manufacture and distribute. At the Sanitary Napkin and Delivery Kits unit, a BRAC social enterprise, the kit costs 28 cents to make. It is then sold to BRAC’s Health Program for 32 cents, the same price at which it is sold to BRAC community health promoters, or shasthya shebikas in Bengali. These women are trained by BRAC and, as part of a range of products and services they provide, sell the kits for 40 cents to their community.

Since 1999, BRAC has manufactured more than 2.6 million of these.

Of course, it’s not enough to only have a birthing kit. A skilled attendant is still necessary to manage complications. You might think it’s time to send in the doctors, but BRAC learned that with a bit of training – and access to a network of qualified help should complications arise – women from the community can be trained to be skilled birth attendants.

BRAC has made headway in frugal innovation by providing products and services that are affordable, accessible, and – crucially – relevant to those being served. BRAC has already seen measurable results; meanwhile Bangladesh is well on its way to reducing maternal and child mortality by the 2015 deadline of the UN Millennium Development Goals.

this journal paper written 2003 clarifies work brac had been doing for a decade

upsated examples 

The Manoshi Project at BRAC provides community-based maternal, neonatal and child health services for 6.9 million urban slum dwellers in 10 cities in Bangladesh. At the time of the project’s inception in 2007, this population had high maternal and neonatal mortality. The first brac maternal delivery kits started production in 1998  and became incorporated in the enterprise that also manufactures sanitary towels from 2007

2 hours in 3-part dvd series on fazle abed/brac published 2006 by jeff skoll with ashoka

the 2005 pbs television series rx for survival featured sit fazle abed and brac prominently  - we have footnoted the group of 15 global health champions the way pbs profiled them

- brac became increasingly celebrated (by gates foundation, soros foundation, jim kim and paul farmers pih) for global health innovations through decade 2002-12 (more recent frugal summaries as brac host annual forums - youtube example


pbs global health champions 2005

During production for Rx for Survival, we encountered a great number of individuals making a tremendous difference on the front lines of global health. Some work in remote rural communities; others create national or international public health initiatives. The following profiles of these global health champions are but a small sample of the many fine people, past and present, who have made public health their life's work.

Fazle Hasan Abed

Fazle Hasan Abed

Founder and Chairperson
BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee)

As leader of one of the most effective non-governmental organizations in the world, Abed has fought against poverty, disease, child mortality, and illiteracy by educating and empowering the poor women of rural Bangladesh.

Uche Amazigo

Uche Amazigo, PhD

World Health Organization, African Program for Onchocerciasis Control

River blindness, a condition caused by worms that damage the eyes to the point of blindness, affects 12 African nations. With determination and diplomacy, Amazigo has implemented a low-cost, sustainable strategy to distribute a medicine that may eradicate this disease.

Andrea ColemanBarry Coleman

Andrea and Barry Coleman

Riders for Health

Their shared love of motorcycles inspired a marriage and the founding of an organization that provides African health care workers with motorcycles to transport patients and deliver medical supplies.

Ernest Darkoh

Ernest Darkoh, MD, MPH, MBA

Chairman and Founding Partner, BroadReach
Former Operations Manager, Botswana's Treatment Program for HIV/AIDS

Darkoh is building a nationwide health system from the ground up in Botswana through a public-private collaboration between the government of the small African nation and foundations.

Paul Farmer

Paul Farmer, MD, PhD

Founding Director
Partners in Health

He has been described as "a man who would cure the world." Trained as a medical anthropologist and physician, the Robin Hood of global health has begged, borrowed, and stolen AIDS drugs to treat the poor in Haiti.

William H. Foege

William H. Foege, MD

Professor and Health Policy Fellow, Emory University
Former Head, CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

In the 1970s he led the smallpox eradication campaign in India and later persuaded governments and drug companies to support polio eradication efforts. Today he is on the front lines of the battle to overcome the public's resistance to the use of vaccines.

Donald R. Hopkins

Donald R. Hopkins, MD, MPH

Associate Executive Director
The Carter Center

For a long time, Hopkins was alone in his belief that Guinea worm disease could be eradicated. Through worldwide campaigns and community mobilization efforts, he now stands on the brink of its worldwide eradication.

Dr. Jim Yong Kim

Jim Yong Kim, MD, PhD

Co-Founder, Partners in Health
Director of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization

Supported in part by a MacArthur Foundation genius grant he received in 2003, Kim is on his way to achieving an ambitious goal: to get three million AIDS patients worldwide onto antiretroviral drugs by the end of 2005.



BRAC Community Health

A grassroots community health worker, Rohima never finished primary school, but today she monitors the health of 300 households in Bangladesh. She is among 33,000 women who have taken charge of their families' health and started microfinanced businesses.

Remko SchatsLina Gustin

Remko Schats, MD and Lina Gustin, RN

Doctors Without Borders


This physician and nurse team treat 17,000 people in a refugee camp in western Chad. During their six-month mission they will deal with the threat of measles, poor sanitation, armed bandits, and Sudanese militias.

Dr. Jaime Sepulveda

Jaime Sepulveda Amor, PhD

Director General
Mexican National Institutes of Health

Presented with a possible cholera epidemic, Sepulveda launched a massive clean-water program in Mexico, with an aggressive communications campaign to alert people to the ways the disease is transmitted.

Alfred Sommer

Alfred Sommer, MD, MHS

Dean Emeritus and Professor
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Sommer discovered that children in Indonesia were dying of complications from nightblindness, a condition arising from vitamin A deficiency. His findings and identification of an inexpensive cure have dramatically reduced childhood mortality.

Mechai Viravaidya

Mechai Viravaidya

Founder and Board Chairman
The Population & Community Development Association

With humor and determination, Viravaidya has fought for family planning and safe sex in Thailand. Known as "the condom king," his effort to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in Thailand has been remarkably successful.


ck prahalad's classic the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid -eradicating poverty through profits was published in 2005 but must have taken several years to assemble

-its major cases came from india peru brazil mexico venezuela

main health cases were india's aravind eye care and india's prosthetic jaipur footand india's annapurna salt which targets solutions to idd iodine deficiency disorder; india's hindustan  lever targeting of soap markets towards mitigation of diarrheal diseases 

peru voxiva tech for early detection of infectious diseases  

Monday, August 30, 2021

brac wash

BRAC WASH in Bangladesh has succeeded in reaching more than twice as many ultra poor people with sustained use of hygienic sanitation than it had even ...


We act as a catalyst, creating opportunities for people living in ...

Water, sanitation and hygiene

The journey began in 1972 in the newly sovereign Bangladesh, ...


The BRAC WASH programme began in 2006 and has ...

WASH in shcool 2 pager.eps

BRAC has been implemenঞng the. “WASH in School' project ...


BRAC has been implemenঞng the “WASH in School’ project funded by charity water to provide secondary rural schools with sustainable WASH faciliঞes especially in areas prone to water scarcity due to contaminaঞon of water sources. BRAC WASH programme has a vast experience with working in schools. From 2007-2015, the programme with support the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (EKN), worked in 5000 rural secondary schools. Addiঞonally, from 2014-2015, WASH faciliঞes were installed in 71 urban schools supported by Splash, and 250 rural schools supported by charity: water

3,5 scaling frugal efficient effective child birth MNCH ;;; 3.4 TB tuberculosisis DOTS Directly Observed Treatment

from 2001 brac university and soon its james grant school of public health became an opportunity to  design total frugal processes serving major events eg child birth 

book from one to many by robert case and all provided studies on scaling up health in low income countries published 2011

lot on brac including full chapters on 

3.5 MNCH scaling up Maternal Neonatal Child Health by kaosar afsama associate director brac healt program dhaka

The millennium goals  4,5gave Brac an opportunity to design major improvements to MNCH services typically between 2006-2010. Notably bill and melinda gates manoshi project scaling around 2007 (connecting bangladesh urban gov potential target population of mothers 8 million) provided brac with opportunity to improve urban slum services and adapt rural experiences. Although brac had started training in urban slums from 1998 its relationships started as less extensive than its rural network origins. A lot of people needed training upgrades with 3 groups of people the governments urban birth attendants and 2 brac networks shasthya shehikas ans shasthya kormi

3.4 Brac started working on ending tuberculosis in rural areas in 1984 initially with such knowledge partners as JATA Japan Anti-TB Association. By the late 1990s Brac's TB interventions were best in class among poorest rural populations - see awards from gates and relationships in early 2000s with jim kim, paul farmer, global fund and george soros. Chapter 13 in Case's book provides both details of how brac developed its approach to TB and summarises the history of  local community health services empowered by village women from Brac's formation 1972- 

authors of chapter 13 Akramal Islam technical consultant  south east asia international union against tb and lung disease new delhi 

and Maria May  project manager global health delivery project harvard boston

Saturday, August 28, 2021

3.2 updates on doordash for health

few black holes in economics more urgently need filling than how village mothers built rural nations health service

one of brac's earliest inventions was a microfranchise enabling a village mother to make positive cashflow from weekly visits to village homes offering basic health products -each para health worker was assigned 300 homes- over years she became these microcommunities most trusted connectors with all rural advances in health 

  2021 update on this 40 year movement for last mile community health

movement features in 10 intercountry comparisons of community health

3.5 maternal health

 In 2014 BRAC brought together booklet of all its services for maternal/natal care and Manoshi approach https://brac.net/sites/default/files/portals/Manoshi-book-v3-1.pdf

Friday, August 20, 2021

wash 4.1 4.4 5.5 5.6 3.6 how does sanitation infrastructure develop in rural nation


Bangladesh was born 1971 with 90% of people in villages without electricity grids let alone water/sanitation systems.  How do you make sanitation everyone's business and community collaboration. A first step was pit latrines integrated with rural homes. Over the decades WASH has begun a major brac program connecting all education and skills networks as illustrated below. To understand the immense challenge of continent wide sanitation in asia have a look at singapore's hub www.worldtoilet.org


Everyone needs access to a toilet. How can we ensure that?


How can behavioural insights help us to increase handwashing?


Breaking the Taboo: Managing Menstrual Hygiene at School

Is COVID-19 over(rated)?: 4 ways BRAC is helping people to continue safe hygiene practices

Valuing water: Where are we, and what do we stand to gain?


HYDRO Industries and BRAC: A partnership to bring clean water to all

Wednesday, August 18, 2021

3.5 3.6 partners affordable health and james grant school

 some academics call the health service models brac has spent 50 years developing cbphc community based primary health care - they have collected a database od cases over 15 years here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491943/

Thursday, August 12, 2021

5.5 brac WASH WAter Sanitation Health

 2023 this year we tarted leari=nig with mr world toliet - probably the person sgaring more replicave solutions on sanitation sdg 6 than anyone - jack sim is from singapore- in 1999 he sold up 40 busienses and started focusing on world good of local sanitation www.worldtoilet.oth which now extends to www.bophub.org ; jack has nov 19 as his own un day and is a lead connector of un hq water summit march 22-24 20223 NY

you may not agree with our classification of brac wash program in our  platform for climate exchanges between smart villages- but jack's exoereince shows goal 6 may be the most natural bridge between solutions women can community build - much of abed's life cooperations and forward infarstructure choices - we continue this iudea with some analysis of fazle abed below but first a story showing why sanitation may be one of the most critical individual motivatirs as a girl reaches 11...

  New sanitation facilities improve

Rumana’s school attendance

Rumana Khatun, a secondary

school student, often missed

classes and as a result, her grades

suffered. Attending school everyday

was inconvenient for the adolescent

girl, since her Matipara Samiruddin

High School in Faridpur district had

only one toilet for 503 students.

The toilet was dirty and had

insufficient water supply most of

the time. For the girls, sharing the

single facility with boys was also

uncomfortable, particularly when

they had to dispose of sanitary

napkins. Thus, it was a regular

practice for Rumana to stay away

from school, especially during her


Her parents often rebuked her for

not going to school. But when they

learned the truth, they stopped

forcing her to go.

In March 2009, BRAC’s Water,

Sanitation and Hygiene programme

constructed two separate toilets at

the school. Rumana now attends

school regularly. Her academic

results are also improving. At the

end of the school year, she secured

16th position in her class and was

promoted to Grade 10.

“BRAC made us realise that proper

sanitation facilities can increase girls’

attendance,” the school’s

water water everywhere and not a drop to drink - this could have been written about bangladesh from the 1970 killer cyclone that caused abed to go from oil company ceo to bottom up disaster relief- to the tragedy that western ngos spent decades building drinking water wells only to find that in most of banglsadesh undeground water is contaminated by arsenic - of course villages without electricity grids or landline phones dont have running water

in terms of sanitation brac introduced pit latrines at the earliest

as this IRC report shows brac wash became a newly coordinated cross functional effort in 2006 https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/brac_wash_programme_final_report_2006-2015_0.pdf

here is brac's main current link to wash and list of current partners -and of course wash your hands is essential to fighting covid assuming you can access clean water

below is abed's foreword to Wash 2006-15

Poverty is not a natural state of affairs. However, the underlying causes of this dehumanising system can be challenged only when poor people have the tools to make changes. That is why social and economic empowerment, health and education are central to every area of BRAC's work. From its earliest days, BRAC championed clean water and hygienic sanitation as essential elements in the journey out of poverty. In the 1980s, BRAC went door to door teaching mothers to make oral rehydration solution to reduce the tragic losses through infant and child deaths. During the 1990s, safe water and latrines were identified by the Government of Bangladesh and BRAC as one of the critical health areas. By this time, 97% of the population had access to free drinking water through shallow tubewells but, as we all know, the discovery of arsenic in the groundwater of large areas of the country set back these gains. The BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programme makes a critical contribution to reversing this. The programme has reached out across 250 sub-districts – about half the country – and has helped over 39 million people gain access to hygienic latrines and 2.3 million people gain access to safe water. Outcome monitoring shows impressive gains not only in access, but also in use rates of hygienic latrines. Targeted sanitation financing – loans for the poor, grants for the ultra poor – along with motivation for self-financing for the non poor, has ensured equal access for all wealth categories. The programme has also supported more than 5,500 secondary schools (around a quarter of all secondary schools in the country) to build separate latrines for girls with menstrual hygiene management facilities. These achievements have been made possible through community empowerment and by enlisting the support of significant forces in society including local government, educational institutions, health volunteers, religious leaders, and other stakeholders. However, the greatest contribution has been made by the frontline field staff and the village WASH committees that the programme helped to establish. Become effective, efficient, then scale up. That is the approach adopted in all BRAC’s programmes. The WASH programme has showed policy makers and planners in South Asia and elsewhere that such an approach can help every rural household have a hygienic latrine and good sanitation practices. The success of the BRAC WASH programme is celebrated, but we must not lose our sense of urgency in the face of so much unmet need. Currently, the national improved water coverage is 87% and the improved sanitation coverage is 61%, according to the WHO and UNICEF. There are still rural communities without clean water supply options due to arsenic and other contaminants such as iron and manganese. There are coastal areas where saline water has infiltrated the traditional ponds and groundwater supplies. There are many urban areas with inadequate water and sanitation; and safely managing increasing volumes of human waste is an emerging challenge for health. Menstrual hygiene management, especially by adolescent girls, is an issue that has still to be properly addressed. To continue the work of BRAC WASH at scale with less money is a challenge we will rise to meet. We will work with national and local government, with the private sector and with community structures to extend our work into new areas. We remain aware that the real heroes are the poor themselves, especially the women in the family who will continue to be agents of change in our development efforts. The donors and partners who helped to launch and support the BRAC WASH programme are to be congratulated on their ambition and willingness to build partnerships. I should also like to thank the Government of Bangladesh for its willingness to let BRAC work alongside them. It is now time to share our effective and proven approach along with our learning. This report will help to raise the global profile of our collective work in this area so that a model that has been shown to be efficient and cost-effective can be implemented more widely both within Bangladesh and throughout the region.

 Sir Fazle Hasan Abed KCMG

we desperately hope artificial intelligence water will bring deep enough maps to take water community to a next level and indeed water will become a schools curriculum however much diverse editing (learning by teachers) that requires - 15 years ago lula helped with a lot of work on bon aqua but brazil of the 2000s as epicentre of world social forum hasnt evidently been an sdg benchmark in 2010s 

 there are not that many bottom up knowledge hubs of water - singapore's world toilet might be vaut le voyage; the aiib and world bank offered indonesia a billion dollar loan to end slums- we await news of whether water was a successful component of that; it is said that india has just earmarked a billion dollars solely for better toilets- again we await; and as you probably know: as global warming accelerates bangladesh will increasingly get drowned out- its a country where suddenly nature's provion of too much water can ruin all the good water; pretty much every community needs its own resiliency plan..


on IRC netherlands

From knowledge broker to international think-and-do-tank: we've evolved a lot over the last 50 years. IRC was founded in 1968 under an agreement between the World Health Organization and the Government of the Netherlands as a hub for information dissemination, a 'knowledge broker'. We were the focal point of a world-wide network of collaborating institutions active in water supply research and development.

During the 1980s and 90s our work became more focused on finding solutions that work through action research. We started to test and adapt innovative approaches to tackle complex problems. This work has taught us the value of taking a systems approach - involving everyone from the people on the ground, to the people who hold the purse strings. That's why now, we champion and enable the vital change from short-term interventions to building resilient local and national WASH systems.

Today, we're working with governments, NGOs, entrepreneurs and people around the world. Together we find and implement long-term solutions to make access to safe water and sanitation available for everyone, for good.

Check out the key events and dates in IRC's last five decades here
see also wash as potential lead case in 2.5 frugal cross-cutting health networks 

Wednesday, August 11, 2021

reviews of 3 books on abed

 3 books sounds remarkably few for someone who advanced lives of quarter of earthlings directly and gives  sustainability networkers access to the deepest learning contexts from the bottom (there's no point actioning UN sdgs leaving out the hardest to reach)

-however the world is fortunate that there are at least 100 chunky abed speeches - sampler coming soon

one of the reasons authors may have been reluctant is parts of brac partnerships doubled in reach every 3 years as demonstrated with bracs field force going from a handful of village coaches to over 100000 ; its quite hard to pitch a publisher a book which at best will tell half the story; this got even more challenging to map as partners doubled in global reach every 3 years of abed's last 15- 

for those interested in brac in bangladesh villages to 2011 this list of teaching resources is a good starting point

Thursday, August 5, 2021

2.1 5.6

 ADB International Skills Forum 2021  aug 23-27 manila time  http://isf2021.adb.org

 Secretariat 4-way partners asian development bank, yidan prize, unicef, unesco

The Forum will highlight approaches to:


  • Improving learning for all at scale; 
  • Preparing learners with better employability and 21st century skills; and
  • Forging smart partnerships to reimagine education reforms for a new normal drawing on lessons learned from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

-see economistasia.net august


could this be the happiest world momentum philippines have been associated with since 1960 saw rockefeller and ford foundation plant all of asia's rice research at the IRRI -rice 2.1 abed/borlaug curricula saving billion from starvation

Sunday, August 1, 2021

4.6 luminary networks of abed alumni

 to be honest, i failed - the last 10 minutes i spent in the presence of sir fazle abed he was talking about luminary networks but i didnt get the last education partnership abed wanted the world to design luminary- henceforth i will try my utmost to celebrate education luminary councils 

Through our prizes, our laureates' projects, and our Council of Luminaries, we see the Yidan Prize Foundation as a platform to bring change-makers together. Our ...
Sir Fazle Hasan Abed KCMG (April 1936 – December 2019) was the Founder of BRAC, ... BRAC Institute of Educational Development on our Council of Luminaries.
Dec 10, 2020 — In this year's edition of the Yidan Prize Summit, held virtually in Hong Kong, 16 academics have been named to the Council of Luminaries.

at the time i last met sir fazle in his dhaka office, i thought i had booked at least 2 more chances to listen: a summit in hong kong that got cancelled due to the 2019 riots and a field visit by a barefoot chinese medic who had turned herself into beijing's number 1 srudent coach on  sustainablity of village enterprises having spent 25 years working in usa on small enterprises

lets begin with this question - how does a human being get on a pathway from birth to early adolescence which both maximises her unique skills productively and positive communal emotions such as confidence, happiness, safey, courage , love

answer - ok lets define EDUCATION as the how ....but then i couldnt find that education pathway for my daughter; i have a long diary of all my failures living near washington dc ; so when i was first introduced to abed and found he had built an organisation of 100000 people helping poorest asian girls gain i greedily arranged as many tours to listen to abed as i could


if hopeful education luminary 5-minute casts were as frequent as weather forecasts on whatever media you apply; and that a luminary and alumni panel of abed cheered the world up with this programming - clues to where a being could linkin and get EDUCATION

so whats left to do is pilot luminary club- and thank heavens a hong kong billionnaire (not me) is a lead pilot -thank you charles!!