DESIGNING FINANCE FOR THE MAJORITY OF THE WORLD"S PEOPLE TO DEVELOP
Over 60% of humans have Asian ethnicity, about 15% white (ie originally from Europe but financially dominated by how Wash Dc and Brussels rule), about 13% African (about 6%Latin American) -we leave 6% for native peoples and others whose Diaspora or other family trees may have made bloodlines borderless
By 1983, 3 continental Asian monetary (rural social business) systems were in place designed to value Asian women as much as men - gravitated by Yunus (1983), Rural China (1976), Abed/Brac 1972. These were organic systems that were integral to mediating any western conventions of human development.
China has created rural full employment by making possible rural Keynesianism through the extraordinary device of giving each commune of over 10000 people its own secondary currency. This is likely to be the biggest macroeconomic reform of our lifetimes providing exactly the right entrepreneurial incentives. (The Economist, Survey China, 1977)
While the sources of village money flows were different: the needs were common for microfranchising village business solutions to these practical sustainability goals all family building needs to gravitate round
goal 2 end famine; eg knowledge of alumni of borlaug , world food prize with particular focus on rice as main staple in tropics (in decade 1962-1972 up to 10% of peoples in china and the then east pakistan had starved to death- this explains how village up empowerment movements became morally and humanly unstoppable - a quiet revolution as Professor Martha Chen employee number 3 at brac terms it)
goal 3 develop last mile health services to end deaths (eg to infants, mothers) that weren't happening in places with access to electricity,
A direct example of life saving knowhow swaps : China needed Brac's Oral Rehydration solution to save infansts from dying of diarrhea; Brac was delighted to get a quick start with much increased rice production with a vaiariant China had adapted.
goal4 to end illiteracy and design livelihood education
goal 5- network villages as 100% productive/collaborative space (in Asia's case so that women were as productive economically as men)
Formally we choose these dates as 1983 is when Bangladesh legislature Grameen Bank's ordinance; 1976 was the first time business could be owned by people in china; 1972 was when Brac was legislated as a Bangladesh NGO. It is true that a 4 person team (ie professors muhammad yunus annd latifee; graduate students dipal barua and mrs begum) started full time concept vilage microfinance solutions experimentation from 1974 onwards. However brac was the first to be scaling thousands of village mothers business in the last 1970s and at that time the government told abed it did not have the resources for village financing - brac was told to design its own system.
Retrospective research : in 2008 my father (The Economist's Norman Macrae) supported Muhammad Yunus social business book launch sampling 2000 copies of the book and by that summer I led a young journalist team to compile yunus10000 dvd is the last set of interviews of all 4 original grameen founders - youth journalists assembled this during the 2008 week that the Nobel Prize committee visited dhaka and opened yunus museum. In less than 3 years, 2011, sheikh hasina removed grameen bank from yunus
It is our systems mapping purpose to offer an integral diary of actions and innovation breakthroughs not a political commentary. 1996 is a significant time since solar and mobile "leapfrog" partners began to emerge in continental asian villages from this time - before that village literally meant no access to electricity grids and only person to person or paper written communication.
|.Mid 5190s Yunus first international experience : 14 year old attending world boy scout conference in Canada sets pattern : western influence on Yunus is American; on Fazle Abed who attends Glasgow University and builds career at Royal Dutch Shell- his networks of influence Uk, Netherlands, (Japan) and core to Asian dynamics..|
By 1970 Yunus is in USA fulbright economics scholarship van der bilt turns into assistane professorsip of economics east tenesee; Abed is now regiuonal ceo for royal dutch shell when he expereinces cyclone killing million compatrits around him; he changes his life spending 1971 ending his contract with shell in London and making case with Britian for recogising war of independence; while yunus lobbies washington dc; abed starts up brac at 100000 person metavilage whose homes he rebuilds with his life savings; Yunu7s takes up a professorship at Chittagong University; by 1974 yunus with another professor latifee and 2 students start 9 years of vilage concept testing that oggiciually becfoems grameen governemnt licensed bank 1983
|If you read Ezra Vogel China's human development was totally different from the peopels of Bengal Bay to 1860 (opium wars with Britain) and from Kissinger/Nixon announcement 1971 of Nixon visit to China in 1972. Thanks to the particular way us-Japan relationships evolved at the end of world war 2, connecting with East asian coiastal belt - anywhere from Tokyo to Singapore was potentially the fastet human growth story ever. On the contient of Asia where more than half of huamns lived; the bcolobial era particularl;y the British empire had admjisntered trade for the development of teh empire not the beings of Asia. Japan was the space that world class engineering knowledge would be distributed from -peculiarly the American Deming update of engineering was of a higher quality than that applied by America's biggest corporations- it was designed around small enetreprsie supply chian networks bertween (borderless) supercities connecetd by 10 tikes more efficient port containseration (integral to world chain) and extraordinary railway systems (city undergrounds and where a country was more than one port bullet trains). When China moved beyond government owned bysienss from 1976 the first tow types of licence were vailage busienss and diaspora chinese (the latter were expected tio bring large inward invetsnment and with japan to bring engineeriung knowhow).|
When we study Bangaldesh rural womens empowerment we view how the 8th most populouus nation was built through 90% rural development. If youi stiudy Chinese development from 1972 you see 2 different multip0liers - tye huge population development ariound the rural areas, the huge wealth development out of the citiess. Bu 2020 this means that China is advancing on all 4 industrial revolutions whereas Bangladesh still 70% rural and without a superport or a pivotal trading route remains a mainly women empowered rural economy. It is mainly Bangaldesh's rural networks of Abed and Yunus that we our Economist Diuary seeks to record
As we can see from Yunus obituary of Sir Fazle , scaling health and schooling sustems nationwide is something brac did; what yunus focused on from 1983 was building 2000 microcedit branches - ecah configured around 60 centres of 60 vilage motehrs - a grameen nbank manager typically with a team of 6 weekly served 60 womnes groups (ecah group had its own space - a centre it could also meet to organmsie women empowerment. At weekly meetings leding coircles woiuld begin with teh 16 decsiions chant - decisons such as we commit to sned all 7-11 yrera olds to school were made but scaling and design of vilage school was led by abed; as was scaling of distribtion of basic medicines
From the last 1980s these mainly American people became key to yunus:
hilary and bill clinton visit yunus before their presdiency
journalist alex ciounts helps set up grameen dialogue and tehn goees to washingtoin dc to fundraise for grameen Foundation; professor latifee is assigned to grameen trust which operates all of gramee4n international consultancy
sam daley harris in dc has the citiznes lobby results ; by 1997 all agree to launch the annual microcreditsummit; its is specifically sam daley harris who goes on to lobby for americas highest international honors for yunus and the nobel peasce prize
back in bangal;desh iqbal quadir , telenor, with funds intially from george soros start up grameenphone on ethird owned by yunus grameeen bank
vidan joregnnsen who runs a for profit global health summit takes on commerciualisationn of yunsu projects in america - staring grameen america
through the period 1995-2005 fazle abed is applying technolgy to build nationwide market leaderships as well as to sesarch for long-term country partners; brac's idea of going international is mainly to help muslimj women build nations where both a gloobal partner and eneough of local government want bthis done at elast in one market (eg eduvation development, agricultural development); it isnt until 2007-2009 that brac's choice of internationa representation in usa (ny), uk (london) and overall operation (neterland teh hague is chosen) however by this time most of abed's biggest international finacing busienss supporters as well as commonwealth aid are shaped - gates soros mastercaqrd foiundation parts of teh world bank
from 2005 yunus develops french parnerships aroudn grameen and hec busienss school; and at 20th celebration of fall of berlin wall a german partner (hans reitz) who becomes his overall global pr agency; however during the few months after his nobel prize in 2006, yunus sounds as if he may run for national election; this becomes a fatal error (by the time he haas decided not to run) he has made a ploitical enemy in shikh hasina- once she is returned to power she starts taking back total governemjnet ownershipn of grameen bank - she finds a arcane law that directoirts of a governemnt bank must retire -only thos yunus partnershios that had be legsilated as busiensses remnain independent of the goverbnbment with yusnu now becoming mainly yunusb centre international cinsultancy
all in all - whuile yunus and abed both hugelpy impacted women development of bangaldesh from the 2010s on brac sustans the economic model of civil society networking and the largest ngo partrnership in the workd