visit 100000 villagers at birth of nation Bangladesh
download one page tour to 50 years of building partners empowering Asian village women to end poverty, design last mile health service and much more- how brac became the ngo world's largest networking economy DAY I ALMOST CHOKED EATING SUSHI WITH FAZLE ABED; The Japan Ambassador to Bangladesh was kindly hosting a dinner in remembrance of dad The Economist's Norman Macrae; Abed was telling his story: Bangladesh was less than 1 year old- it was 1972 and wanting to do more that being young Asia's leading oil company ceo, his greatest mistake was spending his life savings on building homes for 100000 refugees. Being an engineer I knew how to do that. But as we were opening the meta-village a young lady came up to me : what education/village enterprises do we need to prevent dozens of girls starving every week and scores of infants dying from dehydration? So she & I learnt we needed to innovate 5 last mile services for any space girls are born- safe homes, education, health, food, finance; in searching we found a billion village mothers wanting to COLLAB. ..video 1
visit 100000 VILLAGERS AT BIRTH NATION BANGLADESH...Download 2-page guide ...consider cases of new nations after world war 2- how many cases lived up to the peoples simplest dreams, end poverty, food/health/safety for every family member, education geared to decent jobs and happiness? bangladesh did something different- empowering 90% of women to find partners in building their own communities- .over 50 years a new economic model emerged which a billion asian women applied to end extreme poverty- how?.sustainability generation goal 5 100% livesmatter communitY 1 PLATFORMS 1 PLATFORMS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6; 4 livelihood edu for all 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 ref Safiqul Islam 3 last mile health services 3.1 3,2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 last mile nutrition 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2,6 banking for all workers 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 .
..
examples from abed builder of largest ngo partnership: Reeta Roy MCF 3.3 1billion$ to vaccinate continent africa 4.3 uganda; Soros 1.1-1.6 ineteconomics bottom-up, 4.4 new university OSUN 3.4 end TB; Gates 1.1-1.6 digital finance; 2.1-2.6 extending mpesa in tanzania's green revolution; world bank 1.3 first 100 ultra poor nations co-researchers, 4,4 first 100 nations early childhood play co-researchers
in contrast tu unicorns, we define hunicorns as billion dollar startup networks to valuable to human life for exiting investors or quarrelsome political parties -hall of fame first 1000 hunicorn collabs with sir fazle abed

36 alumni networks for sustainability generation goal 5 100% livesmatter communities 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6; 4 livelihood edu for all 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 ref Safiqul Islam 3 last mile health services 3.1 3,2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 last mile nutrition 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2,6 banking for all workers 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 .
..
.
...2016 bangladesh e-digital schools nationwide :: bangla video:::: brookings video:: :::brac how did this happen?
The Economist 1977

2020s earthlings have the great good fortune that over 50 years from 1970 to 2019, fazle abed helped 1 billion asian women end poverty through 6 connected community building networks celebrating the first 5 sdgs and youth mediating everything else to be first sdg generation -each with a collaboration legacy -we're here to help yu find the network you can most help empower further
ending poverty, celebrating sustainability goals & youthful community building = most enjoyable ways to network; fazle abed (oil company engineer inspired by franciscan values) helped billion asian mothers do this over 50 years - join most exciting action learning networks and lets map AI algorithms = optimal livesmatter community builders -2021 join in glasgow cop26 & dubai rewired greatest youth meetings ever with thanks to abed.games youthmarkets.com & worldrecordjobs.com
xx

Which 30 educational and economic partnerships most empower a billion women to end extreme poverty, and value their children’s sustainability? Fortunately for those caring about sustainability 2020s, we can map this by around partners and alumni of 50 years of servant leadership by fazle abed 1970-2019 together with legacy specifications mapped through his final decade

Viewed from 1970, Increasing life expectancy from 25 years below to average helped gravitate development economics world’s most trusted partnership – hence sustainability last mile service markets

3) last mile health
2) agriculture for village food security


4)non-linear livelihood education
5) timing what platforms partners could facilitate entrepreneurial revolution not not just inclusive community but cooperation in full and meaningful entrepreneurial employment

financial entreprenurial revolution for nation's people history excluded from machine age


Friday, November 19, 2021

5.6 zoom me up scotty - where are 20 somethings in curricula transformation

ecop26.com 
extract 19 nov continuing our after action reporting-(see also latest reports from economistwormen.com)-

if any curricula designers in education world are here - we particularly recommend youtube of bloomberg live-

example nb who would you substitute on this panel from borlaug or abed alumn of agriculture that saved third of world from starvation

unite the world in seeing leadership debates since covid zoomed the world are here - and frankly most teenagers up would be more entrepreneurially and sustainably educated debating these contents than what goes in in class rooms be they ivory league ruled or . bureaucratically examined round standards which decimate diversity and the collaboration networks younger half of world need to connect to save our species

Friday, October 22, 2021

bkash 1.5 :: asian100 university collab 5.4 - 2012-1972 can fintech support village entrepreneurs end poverty

After my father The Economist's Norman Macrae died, the Japan Ambassador to Bangladesh was kind enough to host 2 remembrance dinner roundtables on the future of sustaining peoples chaired by sir fazle abed - we heard about bkash (see this brochure published by brac explaining the system fazle abed so bkash as leapfroging) and the collaboration of Asian 100 Universities.
To Abed who had spent 40 years asking his staff to maintain meticulous records which could go as low as 5 cents saving and 1 dollar loans , how organisational and customer record keeping went digital needed to be integral to future of how billion women empowerment designs the first sustainability generation. 
 These two inter-generational networking opportunities (10 times lower cost banking for the very poorest; uniting asian graduatesd around leapfrog model old siloised professors were unlikely to be the first to entrepreneur!) were as far as I can see:  the most exciting updates to my father's life diaries of entrepreneurial human/community endeavour- from being a teenage navigator in allied bomber command stationed in myanmar to charring to any leader off the record who had time for a lunch in St James on Friday's (the main day journalists of the weekly newspaper brainstormed news worthy of leadership mediation)    -more in footnote
Banking for a billion unbanked was the main concept Muhammad Yunus debated at dad's last public lunch roundtable with 40 young entrepreneurial minnds Royal Automobile Club Februrary 2008 during Dr Yunus book tour ( my family smapled 2000 of his books to university students and 10000 dvds with short interviews of grameen leaders the week the Nobel judges came to celebrate the future of Bnagaldesh youth summer 2008)- see brochure. In 2009 we staged the first interntaional birthday party for Dr Ynunus. The BBC's number 2 nature broadcaster (Paul Rose) attended as did the then education ead at British Embassy, and two invited from BRAC - the founder of Brac Bank and a lady who worked with abed on Brac;s corporate identity. Choosing the mauve color became very timely once bkask mauve bird logo becaome the nation's most visible icon. 





Footnote-
Before the computer Adam Smithian economists questioned what future system designs economists compound and whether they fit with nature's system including health and cultural ways local peoples mediate diversity of local resources and trading flows. My father was old school - he sought to mediate future histories not how much can one side extract from everyone else every quarter, 

Dad's first markets' future history survey The Next 40 years was published in 1972. After his 15rh year at The Economist he was permitted one signed survey a year - his first series were mainly of the future of nations sdtarting with his old enemy Japan 1962. He was deleighted (as was President Kennedy) to find that Jpana was netowrking 2 Asia Rising modles one for sdgs of vilages; one for technology multi-wind trades and designs of supercities around small enterprise supply chains.

 

Dad first started debating futures of Asian Village sustainable development (Rural Keynesianism) in The Economist 1962 - consider models Japan (Taiwan, Korea) were applying particularly thanks to Borlaugs gift of up to 10 times more productive local agricultures (especially in rice)> Dad was one of last journalist to meet Von Neumann (whose biographer he became). The question of what 100 times more tech every decade would do to every human being became the greatest human interest story of Norman Macrae's work and The Economist's founding purpose -sdgs 1 & 2: end hunger (eg end corn laws mid 19th century), end poverty (eg design banking by and for indian people out of calcutta- see pilot project queen victoria/James Wilson  

Footnote- James died  in calcutta of diarrhea 9 months after arriving with charter bank) but his son-in-law as second editor helped Queen Victoria morph the english constitution (london capitaliusm) from slave trading empire to commonwealth, This didnt happen fast enough to prvent the world trade of 7 white empiresd ending in 2 world wars but it was in line with Adam Smith's moral mapmaking of hi-trust markets by and for all peoples  

Monday, September 20, 2021

2.

 1972 being an engineer abed spent his life savings building homes for 100000 villagers 5.1 only to find village mothers first question - what education/livelihoods do we need to end starvation> - dozens of mothers/daughters died weekly in abed's meta vilage until he (and partners) designed microfranchise solutions starting with rice 2.1 and last mile health services oral rehydration 3.1 and doordash (300 homes weekly per micrfranchise) 3.2

updates student year 21-22 sept which nations in asia most desperately need food solutions during covid -  eg phillippines community pantry

best news during UNGA 76 Browns Job/Law



Wednesday, September 1, 2021

5.4 collab of new asian universities - each with at least one sustainability solution grads can help 50 million people scale next

sept 2021 breaking what if  Conscious Japans man and woman of the year PM Suga/Superstar Osaka were knowhow- accessible for every asian sdg graduate of 21-22?

==================  

until 1996 potential partners of fazle abed could exchange/experiment in village labs all over bangladesh - then in quick succession two new collab platforms:  5.3 bracnet (with japan and silicon valley co-founders) opened up internet partnerships in 1996 and in 2001 brac university 4.4  began- 

entrusted in asia with 30 years of leadership networking, abed started a truly extraordinary hi-level  search across Asian nations - which first 100 asian new universities wanted to share solutions each of which 2015+ graduates could help 50 million or more people scale -

following the UN sdgs 2030 logic -if millennials are to be the first sustainability generation they will need to network trust /love in communities with such urgent and tech-local-deep solutions that classroom professors of theory in old university silos and slow moving journals can't empower youth to do quick enough to prevent extinction  

today brac university is sharing two by  50-million plus designs abed spent his last years mobilising research partners including new nobel economics laureates around - 

4.5 early childhood playschools -latest paper on playschools rohinga june 2021



1.3 ultra poverty graduation - added to the job responsibilities of abed's son shameran leading brac international and its pivotal connectivity with ultra poverty collabs in dozens of countries

chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk co-editor economistdiary.com/abedmooc.com, linkedin UNwomens:2021-2 please tell us if you know of other graduatie scaling ops as relevant to youth celebrating being the first sustanability generation as well as so-called kerry's last chance for humanity 

more coming soon both from brc university and asian universities that accepted the 50 million challenge , nd of course what abed linkedin as the worl'ship and one billion womens network ending exreme poverty, and glasgow university adam smith scholars now in 11th year designing journals that make calls fir this graduate years most exciting collaborations as well as publish elders stuff -do you know anything cop26 needs graduate collabs to scale everywhere in next 12 months?

========================

30 years ahead of the rest of the world . abed started up community platforms where the world's most trusted partners could trade systems solutions poorest village women need to network round for life sustaining purpose 5.1 100000 person meta village; 5.2 bottom billion village women scaled during brac's first 12 year; blended platforms including 5.3 bracnet and start of 100 collab asian new 5.4 university partnerships exponentially accelerating from 1996 and 2001

not everyone understands data mapped around a platform is the only transparent way to humanise #aiforgood- fortunately abed was an engineer that did understand- 10 years of pen, paper and slide ruler 5 year planning at shell made him always ready to help empower worlds poorest villagers with smartest maths and maps have to offer

sustainability generation goal 5 100% livesmatter communities 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6; 4 livelihood edu for all 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 ref Safiqul Islam 3 last mile health services 3.1 3,2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 last mile nutrition 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2,6 banking for all workers 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 

2.3 rural crafts and cash crops and aarong

 from 1978 aarong was established as a social enterprise (retail channel) for rural crafts:;some reports on aarong from brac university 4.4/5.4 business group are here

among 30 collab networks mapped by abed - our 3rd on sdg 2.3 - include cash crops and other rural businesses eg brac silk which were designed to bring income to villagers from bangladesh citizens  ;across generations  brac's arts focus prepared the way for village daughters to contribute eg to garments businesses in the city - bangladesh's major export

aarong was inspired by fazle abed's first wife ayesha who died 1981  - her foundation

in The Economist searches of the world's most purposeful/sustainability leaders sub-edited by my father norman macrae over 40 years  and personally mediated with his biography of john von neumann continuing to 2010 -

MATHS CHAOS 2020s we mother earth's 7.5 billion beings of 2020s -after six decades of 100 times "moore" technology are chaos-connected by nature's demands from the 2020s - defining decade both of human sustainability and humanising artificial intelligence

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
2.1 2.2 2.3

 IN SEARCH OF SUSTAINABILITY COLLABS fazle abed comes top but the loveq culture of the world's largest ngo partnerships and a billion womens empowerment was multiplied by ayesha - abed bhabi,  alongside abed bhai and now son shameran leading 1.6 brac international as well as the 5 dimensional integration of finance and data-mapping community's deepest sustainability goals


AAF (since 1982) employer of 25000 female artisans https://www.aarong.com/us/newspost/ayesha-abed-foundation.html    Aarong (since 1978) https://www.aarong.com/about-aarong
Ayesha Abed Foundation (AAF) Centers In 1982 the Ayesha Abed Foundation (“AAF”) was established to commemorate the memory and work of the late Mrs. Ayesha Abed, a BRAC staff member and spouse of the late Sir Fazle Hasan Abed, founder of BRAC. The Foundation was created to provide an appropriate working environment, financial and technical assistance and training to develop women’s skills in various crafts. The AAF’s first project, the Manikgonj Centre was opened on September 3, 1983. As of 2020, the Ayesha Abed Foundation operates 15 AAF centres and over 700 sub centers that are responsible for employing over 25,000, mainly female, artisans. The AAF aims to work with the most underprivileged women in the society; therefore, the centers and sub-centers are located in semi-urban or rural areas. AAF combines workers with other women of similar socioeconomic background and provides and environment focused on achievement and personal growth. Women are trained and then given the opportunity to generate income and increase their job responsibility over time. Additionally, the AAF centres and sub-centre workers are given access to the other BRAC programmes. The AAF produces handicraft items that require a large labour input. The vast majority of the women employed at the sub-centre level perform the embroidery work and the other processes including block printing, screen printing, dyeing, tie-dyeing and weaving are performed at the main centers. Major products include: • Men’s ethnic apparel – panjabi, fatua, tagga • Women’s ethnic apparel – shalwar-kameez-dupatta, saree, yoke, coaty, long dress, korta, shawl, tagga • Household & others – bed covers, cushion covers, wall mats, tablecloths, bags, purses, napkins, stools, nakshi kantha AAF is devoted to the socio-economic empowerment of all women and therefore provides a comprehensive set of worker benefits including: • Free health check-ups and medical care for referral cases • Free eye examinations and eye-glasses • Health security scheme to subside inpatient hospitalisation • Awareness training on workers’ rights • Welfare fund and retirement benefits • Advance wage payments • Daycare centre

Tuesday, August 31, 2021

1.3 ultra poor keys

 https://bracupgi.org/

Shameran Abed- 1.3              Ultra Poor Graduation
We are witness to monumental human progress.
... Over the past few decades, the expansion of the global marketplace has lifted a third of the world's population out of extreme poverty.Yet we are also witness to an astounding failure.Our efforts to lift people up have left behind those in the harshest forms of poverty-the ultra-poor.

00:35

What it means to be ultra-poor goes beyond the monetary definition that we're all familiar with:living on less than two dollars a day.

It goes even beyond not having assets like livestock or land. To be ultra-poor means to be stripped of your dignity,purpose and self-worth.

It means living in isolation, because you're a burden to your own community. It means being unable to imagine a better future for yourself and your family.By the end of 2019, about 400 million people were living in ultra-poverty worldwide.That's more than the populations of the United States and Canada combined.

And when calamity strikes, whether it's a pandemic, a natural disaster or a manmade crisis, these numbers spike astronomically higher.

01:28

My father, Fazle Abed, gave up a corporate career to establish BRAC here in Bangladesh in 1972.

Bangladesh was a wreck, having just gone through a devastating cyclone followed by a brutal war for independence.

Working with the poorest of the poor, my father realized that poverty was more than the lack of income and assets. It was also a lack of hope. People were trapped in poverty, because they felt their condition was immutable. Poverty, to them, was like the sun and the moon --something given to them by God.For poverty reduction programs to succeed, they would need to instill hope and self-worth so that, with a little support, people could lift themselves out of poverty. BRAC went on to pioneer the graduation approach, a solution to ultra-poverty that addresses both income poverty and the poverty of hope.

02:27

The approach works primarily with women, because women are the most affected by ultra-poverty but also the ones most likely to pull themselves and their families out of it. Over a two-year period,we essentially do four things.

One, we meet a woman's basic needs by giving her food or cash, ensuring the minimum to survive.

Two, we move her towards a decent livelihood by giving her an asset, like livestock,and training her to earn money from it.

Three, we train her to save, budget and invest her new wealth.

And four, we help to integrate her socially, first into groups of women like her and then into her community.

 

Each of these elements is key to the success of the others, but the real magic is the hope and sense of possibility the women develop through the close mentorship they receive.

03:24

Let me tell you about Jorina.Jorina was born in a remote village in northern Bangladesh.She never went to school, and at the age of 15, she was married off to an abusive husband. He eventually abandoned her, leaving her with no income and two children who were not in school and were severely malnourished. With no one to turn to for help, she had no hope.

Jorina joined BRAC's Graduation program in 2005. She received a dollar a week, two cows, enterprise training

and a weekly visit from a mentor. She began to build her assets, but most importantly, she began to imagine a better future for herself and her children.

If you were visit Jorina's village today, you would find that she runs the largest general store in her area. She will proudly show you the land she bought and the house she built.

Since we began this program in 2002,two million Bangladeshi women have lifted themselves and their families out of ultra-poverty.That's almost nine million people.The program, which costs 500 dollars per household, runs for only two years,but the impact goes well beyond that.

04:40

Researchers at the London School of Economics found that even seven years after entering the program,

92 percent of participants had maintained or increased their income, assets and consumption.

Esther Duflo and Abhijit Banerjee, the MIT economists who won the Nobel Prize last year (2019), led multicountry evaluations that identified graduation as one of the most effective ways to break the poverty trap.

But my father wasn't content to have found a solution that worked for some people. He always wanted to know whether we were being ambitious enough. in terms of scale. So when we achieved nationwide scale in Bangladesh, he wanted to know how we could scale it globally. And that has to involve governments.

Governments already dedicate billions of dollars on poverty reduction programs. But so much of that money is wasted, because these programs either don't reach the poorest, and even the ones that do fail to have significant long-term impact.

05.45

We are working to engage governments to help them to adopt and scale graduation programs themselves,

maximizing the impact of the billions of dollars they already allocate to fight ultra-poverty.

Our plan is to help another 21 million people lift themselves out of ultra-poverty in eight countries over the next six years with BRAC teams on-site and embedded in each country.

In July of 2019, my father was diagnosed with terminal brain cancerand given four months to live.

As he transitioned out of BRAC after leading the organization for 47 years, he reminded us that throughout his life, he saw optimism triumph over despair, that when you light the spark of self-belief in people, even the poorest can transform their lives.

My father passed away in December. 2019.He lit that spark for millions of people,and in the final days of his life, he implored us to continue to do so for millions more.

This opportunity is ours for the taking, sp let's stop imagining a world without ultra-poverty and start building that world together. Thank You.

We are witness to monumental human progress. Over the past few decades, the expansion of the global marketplace has lifted a third of the world's population out of extreme poverty.Yet we are also witness to an astounding failure.Our efforts to lift people up have left behind those in the harshest forms of poverty-the ultra-poor.

00:35

What it means to be ultra-poor goes beyond the monetary definition that we're all familiar with:living on less than two dollars a day.

It goes even beyond not having assets like livestock or land. To be ultra-poor means to be stripped of your dignity,purpose and self-worth.

It means living in isolation, because you're a burden to your own community. It means being unable to imagine a better future for yourself and your family.By the end of 2019, about 400 million people were living in ultra-poverty worldwide.That's more than the populations of the United States and Canada combined.

And when calamity strikes, whether it's a pandemic, a natural disaster or a manmade crisis, these numbers spike astronomically higher.

01:28

My father, Fazle Abed, gave up a corporate career to establish BRAC here in Bangladesh in 1972.

Bangladesh was a wreck, having just gone through a devastating cyclone followed by a brutal war for independence.

Working with the poorest of the poor, my father realized that poverty was more than the lack of income and assets. It was also a lack of hope. People were trapped in poverty, because they felt their condition was immutable. Poverty, to them, was like the sun and the moon --something given to them by God.For poverty reduction programs to succeed, they would need to instill hope and self-worth so that, with a little support, people could lift themselves out of poverty. BRAC went on to pioneer the graduation approach, a solution to ultra-poverty that addresses both income poverty and the poverty of hope.

02:27

The approach works primarily with women, because women are the most affected by ultra-poverty but also the ones most likely to pull themselves and their families out of it. Over a two-year period,we essentially do four things.

One, we meet a woman's basic needs by giving her food or cash, ensuring the minimum to survive.

Two, we move her towards a decent livelihood by giving her an asset, like livestock,and training her to earn money from it.

Three, we train her to save, budget and invest her new wealth.

And four, we help to integrate her socially, first into groups of women like her and then into her community.

Each of these elements is key to the success of the others, but the real magic is the hope and sense of possibility the women develop through the close mentorship they receive.

03:24

Let me tell you about Jorina.Jorina was born in a remote village in northern Bangladesh.She never went to school, and at the age of 15, she was married off to an abusive husband. He eventually abandoned her, leaving her with no income and two children who were not in school and were severely malnourished. With no one to turn to for help, she had no hope.

Jorina joined BRAC's Graduation program in 2005. She received a dollar a week, two cows, enterprise training

and a weekly visit from a mentor. She began to build her assets, but most importantly, she began to imagine a better future for herself and her children.

If you were visit Jorina's village today, you would find that she runs the largest general store in her area. She will proudly show you the land she bought and the house she built.

Since we began this program in 2002,two million Bangladeshi women have lifted themselves and their families out of ultra-poverty.That's almost nine million people.The program, which costs 500 dollars per household, runs for only two years,but the impact goes well beyond that.

04:40

Researchers at the London School of Economics found that even seven years after entering the program,

92 percent of participants had maintained or increased their income, assets and consumption.

Esther Duflo and Abhijit Banerjee, the MIT economists who won the Nobel Prize last year (2019), led multicountry evaluations that identified graduation as one of the most effective ways to break the poverty trap.

But my father wasn't content to have found a solution that worked for some people. He always wanted to know whether we were being ambitious enough. in terms of scale. So when we achieved nationwide scale in Bangladesh, he wanted to know how we could scale it globally. And that has to involve governments.

Governments already dedicate billions of dollars on poverty reduction programs. But so much of that money is wasted, because these programs either don't reach the poorest, and even the ones that do fail to have significant long-term impact.

05.45

We are working to engage governments to help them to adopt and scale graduation programs themselves,

maximizing the impact of the billions of dollars they already allocate to fight ultra-poverty.

Our plan is to help another 21 million people lift themselves out of ultra-poverty in eight countries over the next six years with BRAC teams on-site and embedded in each country.

In July of 2019, my father was diagnosed with terminal brain cancerand given four months to live.

As he transitioned out of BRAC after leading the organization for 47 years, he reminded us that throughout his life, he saw optimism triumph over despair, that when you light the spark of self-belief in people, even the poorest can transform their lives.

My father passed away in December. 2019.He lit that spark for millions of people,and in the final days of his life, he implored us to continue to do so for millions more.

This opportunity is ours for the taking, so let's stop imagining a world without ultra-poverty and start building that world together. Thank You.

--------------------------------------

related background research ultra poor at brac's institutional depository 

Saturday, August 28, 2021

3.2 updates on doordash for health

few black holes in economics more urgently need filling than how village mothers built rural nations health service

one of brac's earliest inventions was a microfranchise enabling a village mother to make positive cashflow from weekly visits to village homes offering basic health products -each para health worker was assigned 300 homes- over years she became these microcommunities most trusted connectors with all rural advances in health 

  2021 update on this 40 year movement for last mile community health

movement features in 10 intercountry comparisons of community health