20th century intelligence - ending poverty of half world without electricity -although Keynes 1936 (last capter general theiry money inetrest emplymen) asked Economists to take hipocrati oath as the profession that ended extreme poverty, most economists did the opposite. Whats not understandable is how educatirs failed to catalogue the lessons of the handful who bottom-up empowered vilages to collaboratively end poverty. There are mainly 2 inteligences to understand- Borlaug on food; fazle abed on everything that raised life expectancy in tropical viage asia from low 40s to 60s (about 7 below norm of living with electricity and telecomes). Between 1972 and 2001, Abed's lessons catalogued in this mooc had largelu built the nation of Bangladesh and been replicated with help of Unicef's James Grant acroo most tropical asian areas. What's exciting is the valley's mr ad mrs steve jobs invted Fazle Abed to share inteligences 2001 at his 65th birthday party. The Jobs and frineds promised to integrate abed's inteligence into neighborhod university stanfrd which in any event wanted Jobs next great leap the iphone. The Valley told abed to start a university so that women graduates from poor and rich nations could blend inteligence as Abed's bottom of the pyramid vilage began their journey of leapfrog modles now that gridd infarstructures were ni longer needed for sdiar and mobile. Abed could also help redesign the millennium goals which were being greenwashed into a shared worldwide system coding frame by 2016. There re at Abed's 80th birtday party , the easy bitwas checking this mooc was uptodate. The hard bit - what did Abed mean by his wish to headhunt a taiwanese american to head the university's 3rd decade starting 2020?

Monday, July 5, 2021

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Brac's 2009 report provides this summary of the subtlety involved in how a nation's civil society economics may choose which markets comprise value chains which need pro-poor strategic leadership
Driving Competition
With regard to competition, since our overall role is always
to fill gaps, BRAC does not enter into sectors or markets
that are already served fairly by the private or public sector.
In fact, when the private sector moves into sectors opened
by BRAC and serves our target markets effectively, we often
step out. Are we creating barriers to entry for the private
sector because they have to pay taxes? So, for each and
every activity that is deemed taxable under the law, in fact,
do we operate at a much greater financial disadvantage?
Because a private business with a profit motive can choose
to source inputs and locate its production facilities from
wherever it is most cost effective. Our outreach, however,
is driven by other considerations – we need to get services to
underserved areas. We first choose an area that is
underserved and then we start with what is needed. Are we
maximising profits? No, we are operating at whatever level
the market will sustain and the market is our best indicator.

2.3 aarong was conceived originally the collective dostribution channel of brac through which oor vilagers gain income from marketing to (richer) citizens; aarong within the overall 21st C Enterprsie model of Brac  is also branded physically in cities as a chain of crafts shops

Aarong products, for example, are touted as too expensive –
however, Aarong’s sales continue to increase, and on the
other end, we are sustaining the livelihoods of more and
more poor artisans.
Our social enterprises work as an ideal business model by
combining market efficiency with social and environmental justice.
The enterprises, which operate in strategic sectors such as retail,
livestock, agriculture, alternative and renewable energy, printing
and packaging and health products are integrated into BRAC’s
core social development programmes. They play a critical role in
generating more fuel for poverty alleviation and sustainable growth
by creating jobs and markets for products.
The model of social enterprise that we have evolved is entirely
home-grown and emerged in isolation from the international
dialogue regarding social enterprises. Indeed, our decision to go
into commercial activities was neither pre-meditated nor planned,
but a result of our instinctive response to improve the condition of
our development programme members, namely the microcredit
borrowers. As such, BRAC’s social enterprises continue to
respond uniquely to local needs

People, Planet then Profit: BRAC social enterprises strive for a triple
bottom line – serve needs of poor people, being environment-friendly
and making profit to be sustainable. Unlike purely commercial
businesses, the profit motive is subordinate to social development
goals. This is illustrated by management’s refusal in 2009 to
mechanise Aarong’s production lines, which would have led to
considerable numbers of rural job losses, and to close down
unprofitable milk-chilling stations in ultra poor areas, erasing
many poor dairy farmers’ only source of earning a fair price for
their produce.
Another important aspect of our social enterprises is that the
surplus they generate, after first being used to develop and expand
the enterprise’s own activities, is then used to support the various
development interventions of BRAC which cannot generate their own
revenue, such as the health and education programmes. This has
had a positive effect on BRAC’s dynamics with donors – investment
of its own resources greatly increases accountability and builds trust.
Our economic development programmes, in conjunction with
enterprises, have helped create and sustain livelihoods for 9 million
families in Bangladesh. In addition, the enterprises have contributed
to stimulating countless rural economies and indirectly generating
over 8 million jobs. The multiplier effects do not stop there.
Because of their organic genesis, our social enterprises have
been groundbreakers, providing products and services that were
not available or were not reaching the poor. Our approach has
repeatedly led the way for development of entire sectors or niche
markets, such as in the introduction of maize as cattle-feed to the
wider Bangladeshi market. BRAC’s culture of risk-taking, targeting
the underserved and continuous research and innovation has
galvanised whole sectors, leading to industry-wide improvement
of production processes, development of quality inputs and better
breeds. Now, thousands of shops are selling indigenous craft and
quality of livestock is improving exponentially. Social enterprises
have also been a key conduit for the enhancement of corporate
governance, management and values in Bangladesh society.
Adopting Best Practices: Another impact that our social enterprises
have is on the functioning of our development programmes. The
contribution of corporate structures is in itself a contribution to good
governance – because the underlying values promoted by social
business are more detached – have more to do with merit and
efficiency. Following the social enterprise example, development
programmes have built sustainability into their operations. Examples
include the business model of the community health volunteer 3.2, who
uses a revolving fund to purchase and sell health commodities.

In addition to connecting Bangladesh to entrepreneurial village
rice networking  the world food prize obituary to fazle abed 20 dec 2019 picks up the story of btac's 6 food/agriculture hunicorns 2.1-2.6

1970-71 Abed's life—and the lives of millions of Bangladeshis—changed as the result of  two very dramatic events: a deadly tropical cyclone, which swept across the country, washing away farms, villages, and towns in its path; followed by the nine-month war of independence from Pakistan. The combined death toll from the storm and the war was estimated at well over 3 million people. An additional 10 million were displaced and further impoverished

.Sir Fazle resigned from Shell Oil in 1971, and the next year formed the Bangladesh Rehabilitation Assistance Committee (BRAC’s original name) to address the terrible devastation suffered by the people of his country. 

Following initial relief efforts 5.1 building metavillage for 100000 refugees, the organization soon became involved in more long-term community development, with primary objectives of alleviation of poverty and empowerment of the poor—and was renamed the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee.

With his strong focus on growing its operations across a broad spectrum of agricultural, economic, and social enterprises, Sir Fazle set BRAC on a course that was different from other non-governmental organizations. He had concluded that economic development was one of the keys to helping the rural poor—and thus launched a microfinance program to provide very small loans to women borrowers as part of village support groups that participated in skills and organizational training.

BRAC’s multi-dimensional and dynamic methods of fighting hunger and poverty include the creation and support of a range of integrated enterprises, such as: seed production and dissemination; feed mills, poultry and fish hatcheries; milk collection centers and milk processing factories; tea plantations; and packaging factories. The income generated from these social enterprises is used to subsidize primary schools and essential health care. Under Sir Fazle’s leadership of more than 40 years, BRAC’s agricultural and development innovations have improved food security for millions and contributed to a significant decline in poverty levels through direct impacts to farmers and small communities across the globe.

2.6 Profiling the fourteen national agri-related markets abed chose ;  this supports appreciation of the particular nature of agriculture and sustainability in Bangladesh – a nation still 70% rural with very small farmholdings and built over 50 years by womens rural Keynesianism. If you purpose is sustaining another rural developing nation – which agricultural products are common, which unique selections for local human development?

Example – profiling agricultual value chains/channels Bangladesh most needed poorest entrepeneurs to lead 

which places actually try to make sure their farmers are integrated into tech ?

I talk simply from visiting asia not listening to powerful people; as well as work done by real followers of abed, chins is a place I search for rural innovations all small famers need to know exist - eg see this intro summary by robert kuhn 

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